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What Is the Manufacturing Process of Chips?

Mar. 25, 2020

The printer chip manufacturing process can be roughly divided into wafer processing (Wafer Fabrication), wafer probe (Wafer Probe), packaging (Packaging), testing (Initial Test and Final Test), etc. Among them, the wafer processing process and wafer pin testing process are front end processes, while the assembly process and test process are back end processes. Printer Chip supplier to share with you:

1. Wafer processing steps: The main work of this step is to make circuits and electronic components (such as transistors, capacitors, logic switches, etc.) on the wafer. The processing procedure is usually related to the product type and the technology used, but it is generally basic. The steps are to properly clean the wafer, then perform oxidation and chemical vapor deposition on the surface, and then perform repeated steps such as coating, exposure, development, etching, ion implantation, metal sputtering, etc., and finally complete several layers on the wafer Circuit and component processing and manufacturing.

2. Wafer pin test process: After the previous process, small cells, ie, crystal grains, are formed on the wafer. In general, in order to facilitate testing and improve efficiency, the same variety is produced on the same wafer. Specifications of products; but can also make several different varieties and specifications of products. After measuring the electrical characteristics of each die with a probe, and marking the unqualified ones, the wafer is cut open, divided into individual grains, and the electrical characteristics are determined according to the electrical characteristics. Sort and put them into different trays, and discard the unqualified grains.

3. Construction process: It is to fix a single die on a plastic or ceramic chip base, and connect some lead terminals etched out of the die with protruded pins at the bottom of the base as a connection with the outside world. For the circuit board connection, finally cover the plastic cover and seal it with glue. The purpose is to protect the die from mechanical scratches or high-temperature damage. At this point, it is considered to be an integrated circuit chip (that is, rectangular small blocks that are black or brown that we can see in the computer with many pins or leads on two or four sides).

4. Testing process: The last process of chip manufacturing is testing, which can be divided into general testing and special testing. The former is to test the electrical characteristics of the packaged chip in various environments, such as power consumption, operating speed, Pressure resistance, etc. The tested chips are divided into different grades according to their electrical characteristics. The special test is based on the technical parameters of the customer's special needs, taking out some chips from similar parameter specifications and varieties, and conducting targeted special tests to see if it can meet the customer's special needs to determine whether it is necessary to design a special customer chip. Products that pass the general test are labeled with the specifications, model, and date of manufacture, and are packaged before shipment. Chips that fail the test are classified as degraded or discarded depending on the parameters reached.

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